Such ladders are familiar to us from childhood. After all, they are installed in all entrances of apartment buildings. The marching ladders got their name from the word "march", which in the construction sphere denotes a section of the ladder from the lower platform to the upper platform.
In the simplest case, according to the design, such structures represent a straight staircase with one span. But very often they also have turning platforms, thanks to which they can rotate through 90 ° / 180 ° or to any other angle, if this is required in accordance with the architect's plan.
Marching stairs: a method of mounting steps
Marching stairs on the design may be different.
In this case, the basis of the marching type of stairs are metal (or made of another material) solid beams, called kosoura. At the same time, when constructing narrow staircases, only one kosour is often used, but during the construction of wide ones, as a rule, two such support beams are installed.
The placement of steps is carried out by laying them in the so-called "saddles": when the steps are superimposed on the beam-kosour. The beam at the same time is made a sawtooth form.
Flight Stairs can be:
- single marches;
When choosing the right number of marches, the specifics of the building’s layout, the height of the building and the purpose of the premises are taken into account.
If there are more than ten to fifteen steps in the march, then it is recommended to divide it into several shorter sections, between which platforms, including turning ones, are constructed. Such gaps can be replaced by "zabezhnymi" steps, having an inner edge (facing the interior of the room) wider than the outer (located close to the wall). Such designs can significantly save space. They are the very versions of the stairs with the fan-shaped arrangement of the feet, which have already been mentioned above.
Such ladders possess excellent operational qualities, provide the maximum comfort and safety when moving users.
Concrete stairs can be either closed or open, one-shot or have more marches.
Sometimes they think that it is possible to build a concrete concrete staircase on your own and at the same time save your finances. It is difficult to argue. But the problem is that if incorrect calculations are performed or deviations in manufacturing technology are made, the consequences are unpredictable: either the life of such a ladder can be shortened, or its complete collapse can occur. Is it worth the risk? Wouldn't it be better to entrust the construction of such a complex concrete structure to a specialized firm?
U-type concrete staircases are an integral component of most multi-storey buildings. Their feature is to provide a rotation of 180 ° when moving from one span to another. Usually they have either intermediate platforms or pivotal steps.
Especially successful from the point of view of aesthetic design can be their location in the corner of the room, which achieves maximum savings in usable space.
The use of pivot or zabezhnyh steps can be put at the head of interior design, and thanks to the decoration of modern materials using glass, stainless steel and wood, such a staircase will attract the views of visitors and emphasize the status of the owner of the house.
Manufacturing of reinforced concrete stairs is inexpensive.
Wooden flight stairs
The construction of such stairs is especially justified in a private household, where such wooden structures create an atmosphere of comfort in the house and enhance the feeling of comfort.
Wooden staircases can be:
- L-shaped (rotated 90 °);
- U-shaped type (rotate 180 °).
In this case, the turns can be provided due to the presence of either the platforms or the transit stages.
According to the design of the staircase made of wood, they are on kosoura, in string, on consoles, on bolets.
Such ladders, unlike other types of ladders, have a self-supporting structure. They do not contain in their composition neither kosourov, nor bowstrings, nor massive fences. Therefore, in any home or office such stairs look easy and elegant. They seem to hover in space, and they, in contrast to traditional marching stairs, are easier to assemble.
At the console ladder, one part of it is adjacent to the wall, while the other is not connected with anything. Therefore, such structures can only be located next to the walls, they can not be placed in the center of the room.
A great achievement in the development of technology for the construction of stairs was the development of the Boltsevaya staircase by the German company KENNGOTT, which has been specializing in the manufacture of stairs for more than a hundred years, which emerged in the 1960s. In order to understand why the new ladders were called “boltsevs,” it is enough to look in the German-Russian dictionary for the meaning of the word "bolzen", which in Germany denotes both the screw, and the rod, and the pin.
Indeed, one edge at the steps of such stairs is fixed on the wall with the use of steel brackets, while the second, free, connects through the bolts with other steps. Bowstrings and kosoura in the classic version are absent. Therefore, the stairs to the Bolzah look especially modern.
Boltsevye designs are in fact very versatile and can contain bowstrings, and kosoura, and even additions of concrete. The use of modern materials in them is limited only by the imagination of designers, who often choose not only traditional wood. Today, you can often find Bolsa stairs from such materials as:
- a rock;
To an uninformed person, the staircase at Bolzah may seem unreliable and unsafe. But this is a misconception. It is important to note that when using boltsev ladders never heard the squeaks.
In cottages and private houses, stairs are often made of wood, since they can be built independently without any special expenses. However, some owners prefer metal in the interior.
Marching metal ladder in manufacturing is a more complex structure, often requiring for its creation the presence of welding experience and the use of forging or casting technologies.
On the modern market you can buy ready-made cast-iron or bronze stairs. They look great, but they are more expensive than steel structures. As for a material such as aluminum, only fences and railings are made of it in the flight stairs. The use of supporting aluminum structures is not economically feasible.
These stairs are convenient to use, and their construction is particularly appropriate in areas where there is a lot of free space. It is easy to determine their main parameters.
The ideal option for the angle of elevation is considered to be its value equal to 30-45 °. The length of a standard march is 10–15 steps, since, with a greater length, it becomes difficult to climb it.